The need to supplement written grammar feedback: A case study from English teacher education

Michel Cabot, Arne Kaldestad


The value of oral corrective feedback for the development of metalinguistic knowledge has been acknowledged in the research literature for decades. Yet, teachers in second language teacher education programmes still tend to provide written feedback almost exclusively, leaving untapped potential for successful formative assessment. This study aims to investigate the potential complementarity of written and oral feedback through a qualitative case study of one teacher educator’s grammar feedback practices in English as a second language. Eighteen student teachers at a Norwegian university college received individual written and oral corrective feedback on their essays. The provided feedback was analysed using Ellis’s (2009) and Lyster and Ranta’s (1997) taxonomies. Inter- and intra-rater reliability tests confirmed the findings. The analysis shows that written and oral feedback fulfil different functions and have complementary roles. The described case may function as an inspiring example of exemplary practice for teacher educators and language teachers.


EFL grammar feedback; EFL teacher education; oral corrective feedback; written corrective feedback

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ISSN: 2000-3560